Content Modeling in Smart Learning Environments: A systematic literature review Articles uri icon

publication date

  • March 2024

start page

  • 333

end page

  • 362

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0948-695X

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 0948-6968


  • Educational content has become a key element for improving the quality and effectiveness of teaching. Many studies have been conducted on user and knowledge modeling using machine-learning algorithms in smart-learning environments. However, few studies have focused on content modeling to estimate content indicators based on student interaction. This study presents a systematic literature review of content modeling using machine learning algorithms in smart learning environments. Two databases were used: Scopus and Web of Science (WoS), with studies conducted until August 2023. In addition, a manual search was performed at conferences and in relevant journals in the area. The results showed that assessment was the most used content in the papers, with difficulty and discrimination as the most common indicators. Item Response Theory (IRT) is the most commonly used technique; however, some studies have used different traditional learning algorithms such as Random Forest, Neural Networks, and Regression. Other indicators, such as time, grade, and number of attempts, were also estimated. Owing to the few studies on content modeling using machine learning algorithms based on interactions, this study presents new lines of research based on the results obtained in the literature review.


  • Telecommunications


  • content modeling; smart content; learning analytics; smart learning environments; literature review