Analyzing Reduced Precision Triple Modular Redundancy under Proton Irradiation Articles uri icon

publication date

  • March 2022

start page

  • 470

end page

  • 477


  • 3


  • 69

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0018-9499

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1558-1578


  • This work analyzes the performance of the reduced precision redundancy (RPR) error mitigation technique using the fast Fourier transform (FFT) as a case study. To this purpose, several configurations of an FFT IP design were implemented in field-programmable gate array (FPGA) using reduced precision triple modular redundancy (RP-TMR) and tested under proton irradiation and fault injection. The cross section, the sensitivity to common-mode failures (CMFs), and the signal-to-noise ratio of these configurations were evaluated. The results of the radiation experiments and fault injection campaigns are in agreement and show that the RP-TMR technique may be used as an alternative to triple modular redundancy (TMR) if small errors can be tolerated, as it has a good performance in terms of error correction capabilities, area usage, and sensitivity to critical errors.


  • Electronics
  • Nuclear Energy


  • common-mode failures (cmfs); fast fourier transform (fft); reduced precision redundancy (rpr); static random access memory (sram)-based field-programmable gate array (fpga); triple modular redundancy (tmr)