electronic international standard serial number (EISSN)
In recent years, vulnerability against high-velocity impact loads has become an increasingly critical issue in the design of composite aerospace structures. The effects of Hydrodynamic Ram (HRAM), a phenomenon that occurs when a high-energy object penetrates a fluid-filled container, are of particular concern in the design of wing fuel tanks for aircraft because it has been identified as one of the important factors in aircraft vulnerability. The projectile transfers its momentum and kinetic energy through the fluid to the surrounding structure, increasing the risk of catastrophic failure and excessive structural damage. For the present work, water-filled CFRP square tubes were subjected to an impact of steel spherical projectiles (12.5 mm diameter) at impact velocities of 600&-900 m/s. The CFRP tubes were filled to different volumes to examine how volume might influence the tank behavior. The composite test boxes were instrumented with six strain gauges and two pressure transducers, and the formation process of the cavity was recorded using a high-speed camera. The damage produced in the tubes was then analyzed, and differences were found according to the testing conditions. This work presents the results of these tests.