A Review of Protection Schemes for Electrical Distribution Networks with Green Distributed Generation Articles uri icon

publication date

  • November 2023

start page

  • 7586


  • 22


  • 16

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1996-1073


  • An amalgamation of Green Distributed Generation (GDG) with Distribution Networks (DNs) was developed because its performance became more efficient and sustainable. It increased the challenges in the design and operation of the protection scheme and changed the short circuit current (SCC), voltage profile, power losses, and power flow direction after the GDG penetration. These changes rely on the number, size, location, and environmental influence according to the GDG type. Therefore, many researchers have discussed protection system challenges and presented types of protection approaches to find a robust protection layout for DNs integrated with GDGs to prevent the electrical equipment from being destroyed during abnormal conditions. This paper represents an exhaustive survey of GDG integration with DNs and its effects on protection design challenges. Furthermore, this paper summarizes the modern protection methods and detection technologies, along with their important aspects that have been accessed. One of the important and reliable methods is resetting and coordinating between protection devices (PDs) that operate in the same distribution feeder. This methodology focuses on restricting the main variables and parameters used in the PDs setting after the GDG is embedded to recalculate the suitable setting and coordination. Optimization techniques should be used to find the best setting or location of the protection system in the DNs, in addition to calculating the optimal GDG scale and location. However, international standards are used to specify the suitable equations that satisfy high protection system characteristics to ensure the DNs" reliability.


  • Electronics


  • protection scheme; green distributed generation (gdg); protection devices (pds); distribution networks (dns)