Development of an Inverted Epifluorescence Microscope for Long-Term Monitoring of Bacteria in Multiplexed Microfluidic Devices Articles uri icon

publication date

  • August 2020

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 14


  • 15 (4140)


  • 20

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1424-3210

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1424-8220


  • Developing more efficient methods for antibiotic susceptibility testing is a pressing issue in novel drug development as bacterial resistance to antibiotics becomes increasingly common. Microfluidic devices have been demonstrated to be powerful platforms that allow researchers to perform multiplexed antibiotic testing. However, the level of multiplexing within microdevices is limited, evidencing the need of creating simple, low-cost and high-resolution imaging systems that can be integrated in antibiotic development pipelines. This paper describes the design and development of an epifluorescence inverted microscope that enables long-term monitoring of bacteria inside multiplexed microfluidic devices. The goal of this work is to provide a simple microscope powerful enough to allow single-cell analysis of bacteria at a reduced cost. This facilitates increasing the number of microscopes that are simultaneously used for antibiotic testing. We prove that the designed system is able to accurately detect fluorescent beads of 100 nm, demonstrating comparable features to high-end commercial microscopes and effectively achieving the resolution required for single-cell analysis of bacteria. The proposed microscope could thus increase the efficiency in antibiotic testing while reducing cost, size, weight, and power requirements, contributing to the successful development of new antibiotic drugs.


  • Biology and Biomedicine


  • epifluorescence microscopy; time-lapse microscopy; fluorescence imaging; single-cell analysis; microfluidics; gfp-expressing bacteria; drug development; antibiotic resistance