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This study presents a systematic review of the literature on the use of augmented reality technology to support science, technology, engineering and mathematics (STEM) learning. It synthesizes a set of 28 publications from 2010 to 2017. A qualitative content analysis is used to investigate the general characteristics of augmented reality applications in STEM education, the instructional strategies and techniques deployed in the studies reviewed, and the evaluation approaches followed in the interventions. This review found that most augmented reality applications for STEM learning offered exploration or simulation activities. The applications reviewed offered a number of similar design features based on digital knowledge discovery mechanisms to consume information through the interaction with digital elements. However, few studies provided students with assistance in carrying out learning activities. Most of the studies reviewed evaluated the effects of augmented reality technology in fostering students' conceptual understanding, followed by those that investigated affective learning outcomes. A number of suggestions for future research arose from this review. Researchers need to design features that allow students to acquire basic competences related with STEM disciplines, and future applications need to include metacognitive scaffolding and experimental support for inquiry-based learning activities. Finally, it would be useful to explore how augmented reality learning activities can be part of blended instructional strategies such as the flipped classroom.