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Purpose - The purpose of this paper is to identify the key antecedents and consequences of bank reputation and whether their relative importance varies across countries. Design/methodology/approach - The sample consists of 900 bank customers, representative of the national populations in the UK (500) and Spain (400), two of the countries in which the weight of the financial system on the gross domestic product is much bigger than that of other European countries. The research hypotheses were tested by conducting a multi-group analysis with covariance-based structural equation modelling. Findings - In contrast with previous studies, it was discovered that the most important cognitive antecedent of banks' reputation is reliability/financial strength. This study reinforces the prominence of satisfaction as a key emotional aspect of reputation. Differences between the UK and Spain were found in the impact of employer branding and corporate social responsibility. The positive effect of bank reputation on consumer behaviour (loyalty and word of mouth) and the existence of cross-country differences as regards loyalty were also confirmed. Originality/value - This is a systematic cross-country analysis of corporate reputation which includes not only cognitive antecedents but also emotional determinants that have been repeatedly ignored. This paper sheds light on whether the antecedents and consequences of corporate reputation vary across countries. The choice of the banking sector provides a unique opportunity to observe the determinants and outcomes of corporate reputation following an unstable time in the banking sector.