electronic international standard serial number (EISSN)
In recent years, vulnerability against high-velocity impact loads has become an increasingly critical issue in the design of composite aerospace structures. The effects of Hydrodynamic Ram (HRAM), a phenomenon that occurs when a high-energy object penetrates a fluid-filled container, are of particular concern in the design of wing fuel tanks for aircraft because it has been identified as one of the important factors in aircraft vulnerability. The projectile transfers its momentum and kinetic energy through the fluid to the surrounding structure, increasing the risk of catastrophic failure. In the present paper, the commercial finite-element code ABAQUS/Explicit has been used to simulate an HRAM event due to the impact of a steel spherical projectile into a water-filled woven CFRP square tube. In order to simulate the fluid-structure interaction, the Coupled Eulerian Lagrangian (CEL) approach is used. Experimental tests which indicate the pressure at different points of the fluid, strains of the walls and cavity evolution for different impact velocities are compared with the numerical results in order to assess the validity and accuracy of CEL technique in reproducing such a complex phenomenon. Also, several numerical impacts at different initial projectile velocities are performed to study its influence in the HRAM phenomenon.