The Horizontal Rain-Cell Span and Wind Impact on Multisite Diversity Scheme in a Tropical Region during El-Niño and La-Niña Articles uri icon

publication date

  • July 2023

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1424-3210

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1424-8220


  • Site diversity is the most effective way to recover a signal lost during heavy downpours, especially in tropical regions since other mitigation techniques such as adaptive power control and code modulation may be unreliable during such. Duplicated links at diverse sites are deployed, and the least-attenuated signal of either site will be routed to the prime site for further operation. Since the deployment is costly, a diversity-gain model is used to estimate the appropriateness of selected sites. Diversity gain is known to depend on site-separation distance and elevation angle and, optionally, baseline angle and signal frequency, based on the region of research. In addition to these factors, the horizontal rain-cell span and the wind"s impact on the gain are ongoing investigations, especially in tropical regions. This article presented the rain analysis from the year 2014 to mid-July 2017 at eight sites in the Gombak and Sepang districts of Malaysia to investigate the dependency relevancies. The rain rates were then used to predict the attenuation using the ITU-R P.618-13 rain-attenuation model, and the inter- and cross-district gain characteristics were evaluated. The observation of diurnal rain during the northeast seasons yielded that the northeast wind stimulates intense rain at locations along its direction, thus, extending the horizontal rain-cell span to 15 km distant from a host. Meanwhile, sites located at 5 km distant, slightly perpendicular to the wind direction, and from 90° to 180° from due north of the host, experience less rain. The baseline angle variation establishes nonimpact to the gain and lengthening the site-separation distance presented equal chances to the shorter span towards diversity-gain increment. The research outcome is necessary to formulate a more reliable diversity-gain model to be used in the industry.


  • Telecommunications


  • atmospheric attenuation; signal degradation; tropical climate