High-capacity Li4Ti5O12-C thick ceramic electrodes manufactured by powder injection moulding Articles uri icon

publication date

  • September 2023

start page

  • 978

end page

  • 985


  • 2


  • 44

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0955-2219

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-619X


  • Lithium-ion batteries are the most efficient electrochemical energy storage devices. However, there is still room for improvement in terms of safety and energy density, presently limited by conventional tape-casting electrode processing. In this study, a blend of the anodic material Li4Ti5O12 with 2 wt% carbon black has been processed through powder injection moulding (PIM) yielding, after subsequent debinding and sintering processes, to ultra-thick (>500 µm) ceramic binder-free electrodes. The mixture of Li4Ti5O12 with the thermoplastic binder composed of polypropylene, paraffin wax, and stearic acid is investigated to identify a rheologically suitable feedstock for the PIM process. The resulting disk-type green parts contain 50 vol% of ceramic powder. After removing the binder with solvents and subsequent thermal treatment, the parts are sintered at 900 °C, aiming for a relatively high porosity, i.e., 25.7%. The resulting electrodes show very high areal and volumetric capacities up to 26.0 ... and 403 ... at C/24, respectively, in a half-cell against lithium metal.


  • Materials science and engineering


  • powder injection moulding; binder-free electrodes; thick electrodes; high volumetric energy density; li-ion battery