Sequence Control Strategy for Grid-Forming Voltage Source Converters Based on the Virtual-Flux Orientation under Balanced and Unbalanced Faults Articles uri icon

publication date

  • April 2023

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 24


  • 7


  • 16

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1996-1073


  • Renewable power generation has increased in recent years, which has led to a decrease in the use of synchronous generators (SGs). These power plants are mainly connected to the power system through electronic converters. One of the main differences between electronic converters connected to power systems and SGs connected to the grid is the current contribution during faults, which can have an impact on protection systems. New grid codes set requirements for fast current injection, but the converters' maximum current limitation during faults make it challenging to develop control strategies for such current contribution. This paper presents a positive and negative sequence current injection strategy according to the new Spanish grid code requirements for the novel grid-forming converter control algorithm based on virtual-flux orientation. The behavior of the proposed strategy is tested in a hardware in the loop (HiL) experimental set-up under balanced faults, meaning that the fault is symmetrically distributed among the three phases, and unbalanced faults, where the fault current is distributed asymmetrically between the phases.


  • Industrial Engineering
  • Renewable Energies


  • grid-forming power converter; hardware in the loop; negative sequence; renewable energy sources; spanish grid code; unbalanced faults; virtual-flux orientation