Black-start capability of PV power plants through a grid-forming control based on reactive power synchronization Articles uri icon

publication date

  • March 2023

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 9


  • 108730


  • 146

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0142-0615

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1879-3517


  • Power system restoration is a critical process for any power system. As synchronous generators are being replaced by power electronic converters used in renewable energy generation, the contribution of renewable energy power plants to power system restoration (PSR) after a black-out is becoming more relevant, the so-called black start capability. Existing solutions for providing black start capability to photovoltaic (PV) power plants rely on the use of energy storage systems (ESS) in a hybrid PV plant. In contrast, this paper proposes a solution for the contribution of PV power plants to the PSR that allows a completely autonomous black start process. Reactive power synchronization is used for controlling the PV inverters as virtual synchronous generators (VSG), providing grid-forming control and ensuring synchronism. During the black start process, the PV power is regulated to match the demand using a decentralized solution to share the load between multiple PV inverters. The solution has been validated to handle the most critical situations during the black start process such as the variation on the power source, i.e. irradiance, or on the supplied load and the connection to the main grid.


  • Electronics
  • Environment
  • Industrial Engineering
  • Materials science and engineering
  • Renewable Energies


  • black-start; islanded operation; frequency control; voltage control; photovoltaic