Machine learning techniques are used to construct models capable of inferring plasma state variables from non-emissive (LP) and emissive (EP) cylindrical Langmuir probes under conditions in which standard analytic theories are not applicable. Synthetic data sets, consisting of plasma parameters and probe characteristics computed kinetically in the orbital motion theory framework, are used to train and test regression models to infer electron densities, temperatures, and plasma potentials. Model skill metrics are introduced to determine uncertainty margins on inferred parameters, when models are applied to test sets not involved in the model optimization process. The different scalings and transformations required to obtain optimal accuracy are described in each case considered for both LPs and EPs. Excellent inferences are made for all three parameters considered from LP characteristics, but owing to the strong dependence on the plasma potential, and weak dependences on electron temperature and density with EPs, only plasma potential inferences are reported with acceptable accuracy for this type of probe. Our findings demonstrate that the combination of kinetic simulations and machine learning techniques is a promising and practical way to infer plasma parameters efficiently from cylindrical probes, under conditions beyond, and more general than those under which commonly used analytic approximations are valid.