Financial access and household's borrowing: Policy perspectives of an emerging economy Articles uri icon

publication date

  • September 2022

start page

  • 981

end page

  • 999


  • 5


  • 44

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0161-8938


  • This paper analyzes access to finance based on the usage of financial services by Indian households. Based on two rounds of nationally representative All India Debt and Investment Survey (AIDIS) for 2002 and 2012, we examine how access to credit is associated with a household's socioeconomic and demographic characteristics using Heckman's two-step approach procedure. Our results show that belonging to higher asset quintile groups has a statistically significant positive effect on the household's decision to take loans only from the formal sector in both rounds and significant negative effects on taking a loan only from the informal sector. Similarly, social and religious groups play a significant role in the decision of the household to take a loan. Households with more educated adults are more likely to take a loan. Households involved in regular wage-earning occupations in urban areas are more likely to take a loan from formal sources. Thus, the importance of policy placing greater emphasis on demand-side barriers rather than on improving the physical availability of formal financial services to promote financial inclusion in India.


  • Economics


  • formal and informal credit; credit accessibility and constraints; probit model; heckman two-step model; india