On the Numerical Modeling of Flax/PLA Bumper Beams Articles uri icon

publication date

  • August 2022

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 21


  • 16


  • 15

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1996-1944


  • Significant progress has been made in green composites developing fully biodegradable composites made of microbially degradable polymers reinforced with natural fibers. However, an improvement in the development of numerical models to predict the damage of green composites is necessary to extend their use in industrial applications of structural responsibility. This paper is focused on developing a numerical model that can predict the failure modes of four types of bumper beams made of flax/PLA green composites with different cross sections. The predictions regarding energy absorption, contact force history, and extension of delamination were compared with experimental results to validate the FEM model, and both results revealed a good agreement. Finally, the FEM model was used to analyze the failure modes of the bumper beams as a function of the impact energy and cross-section roundness. The impact energy threshold defined as the maximum absorbed-energy capability of the beam match with the impact energy that produces delaminations extended through all the cross sections. Experimental and numerical results revealed that the threshold energy, where the maximum energy-absorption capability is reached, for Type A is over 60 J; for Type B and C is around 60 J; and for Type D is at 50 J. Since delamination is concentrated at the cross-section corners, the threshold energy decreases with the cross-section roundness because the higher the roundness ratio, the wider the delamination extension.


  • Materials science and engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering


  • green composite; bumper beam; numerical modeling; energy absorption; natural fibers