(copyright) 2022 The AuthorsThere is a bidirectional transplacental cell trafficking between mother and fetus during pregnancy in placental mammals. The presence and persistence of fetal cells in maternal tissues are known as fetal microchimerism (FMc). FMc has high multilineage potential with a great ability to differentiate and functionally integrate into maternal tissue. FMc has been found in various maternal tissues in animal models and humans. Its permanence in the maternal body up to decades after delivery suggests it might play an essential role in maternal pathophysiology. Studying the presence, localization, and characteristics of FMc in maternal tissues is key to understanding its impact on the woman's body. Here we comprehensively review the existence of FMc in different species and organs and tissues, aiming to better characterize their possible role in human health and disease. We also highlight several methodological considerations that would optimize the detection, quantification, and functional determination of FMc.