Recent advances in hard-magnetic soft composites: Synthesis, characterisation, computational modelling, and applications Articles uri icon

publication date

  • January 2022

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 20


  • 114800


  • 279

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0263-8223

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1879-1085


  • Hard-magnetic soft composites consist of magneto-active polymers (MAPs) where the fillers are composed of hard-magnetic (magnetically polarised) particles. These novel multifunctional materials are experiencing a great advance from the last few years. This rise has been motivated by the possibility of controlling ferromagnetic patterns during the manufacturing process. Thus, structures with programmable functionalities can be conceptualised and implemented, opening new routes into the design of smart components with great opportunities in the biomedical engineering and soft robotics fields. In this work, we provide an overview of the state of the art of such MAPs, providing the key fundamentals and reference works. To this end, we present the current synthesis and experimental characterisation methods, the different computational modelling approaches across scales, and a detailed presentation of their current potential applications. Finally, we provide an overall discussion on future perspectives.


  • Biology and Biomedicine
  • Industrial Engineering
  • Materials science and engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Physics
  • Robotics and Industrial Informatics


  • constitutive modelling; hard-magnetics; magneto-active polymers (map); magneto-mechanics; multifunctional composites; smart materials