A System of Indicators for Socio-Economic Evaluation and Monitoring of Global Change: An Approach Based on the Picos de Europa National Park Articles uri icon

published in

publication date

  • May 2022

start page

  • 741

end page

  • 758


  • 5


  • 11

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2073-445X


  • National Parks are spaces that are of great interest for evaluating and monitoring global
    environmental change as these parks encompass natural, cultural, and rural features, along with
    ecological processes, which are subject to social or economic changes that are much more difficult
    to track outside of these spaces. To do this, it is necessary to have a sufficient set of data and
    indicators to monitor the effects of global change in the short, mid, and long term. The majority
    of indicators have been developed to monitor the bio-geophysical environment; socio-economic
    indicators of global change for National Parks are much more limited. The aim of this paper is to
    present a system of indicators for socio-economic evaluation and monitoring of global change for the
    Picos de Europa National Park. This park has two unique features: it has one of the two systems of
    socio-economic indicators developed for the Spanish National Parks, and it is practically the only
    one of Spain"s 16 National Parks with human populations living within its boundaries. Many of the
    indicators specifically developed for this park can be used for other national parks that have similar


  • Sociology


  • protected areas; climate change; socioeconomic indicators; spain