Wireless Electromagnetic Radiation Assessment Based on theSpecific Absorption Rate (SAR): A Review Case Study Articles uri icon

authors

  • ABDUL-AL, MOHAMED
  • AMAR, AHMED S. I.
  • ELFERGANI, ISSA
  • LITTLEHALES, RICHARD
  • OJAROUDI PARCHIN, NASER
  • AL-YASIR, YASIR
  • SEE, CHAN HWANG
  • ZHOU, DAWEI
  • ABIDIN, ZUHAIRIAH ZAINAL
  • ALIBAKHSHIKENARI, MOHAMMAD
  • ZEBIRI, CHEMSEDDINE
  • ELMEGRI, FAUZI
  • ABUSITTA, MUSA
  • ULLAH, ATTA
  • ABDUSSALAM, FATHI M. A.
  • RODRIGUEZ, JONATHAN
  • MCEWAN, NEIL J.
  • NORAS, JAMES M.
  • HODGETTS, RUSSELL
  • ABD-ALHAMEED, RAED A.

publication date

  • February 2022

start page

  • 511

end page

  • 542

issue

  • 4

volume

  • 11

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2079-9292

abstract

  • Employing electromagnetic fields (EMFs) in new wireless communication and sensing
    technologies has substantially increased the level of human exposure to EMF waves. This paper
    presents a useful insight into the interaction of electromagnetic fields with biological media that is
    defined by the heat generation due to induced currents and dielectric loss. The specific absorption
    rate (SAR) defines the heating amount in a biological medium that is irradiated by an electromagnetic
    field value. The paper reviews the radio frequency hazards due to the SAR based on various safety
    standards and organisations, including a detailed investigation of previously published work in
    terms of modelling and measurements. It also summarises the most common techniques utilised
    between 1978 and 2021, in terms of the operational frequency spectrum, bandwidth, and SAR values.

keywords

  • electromagnetic fields; emf; sar; radio frequency hazards