Brillouin spectroscopy has recently gained considerable interest within the biomedical field as an innovative tool to study mechanical properties in biology. The Brillouin effect is based on the inelastic scattering of photons caused by their interaction with thermodynamically driven acoustic modes or phonons and it is highly dependent on the material's elasticity. Therefore, Brillouin is a contactless, label-free optic approach to elastic and viscoelastic analysis that has enabled unprecedented analysis of ex vivo and in vivo mechanical behavior of several tissues with a micro-metric resolution, paving the way to a promising future in clinical diagnosis. Here, we comprehen-sively review the different studies of this fast-moving field that have been performed up to date to provide a quick guide of the current literature. In addition, we offer a general view of Brillouin's biomedical potential to encourage its further development to reach its implementation as a feasible, cost-effective pathology diagnostic tool.