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The vertiginous increase in the use of extracellular vesicles and especially exosomes for therapeutic applications highlights the necessity of advanced techniques for gaining a deeper knowledge of their pharmacological properties. Herein, we report a novel chemical approach for the robust attachment of commercial fluorescent dyes to the exosome surface with covalent binding. The applicability of the methodology was tested on milk and cancer cell-derived exosomes (from U87 and B16F10 cancer cells). We demonstrated that fluorescent labeling did not modify the original physicochemical properties of exosomes. We tested this nanoprobe in cell cultures and healthy mice to validate its use for in vitro and in vivo applications. We confirmed that these fluorescently labeled exosomes could be successfully visualized with optical imaging.