Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
In conditional automation (level 3), human drivers can hand over the Driving Dynamic Task (DDT) to the Automated Driving System (ADS) and only be ready to resume control in emergency situations, allowing them to be engaged in non-driving related tasks (NDRT) whilst the vehicle operates within its Operational Design Domain (ODD). Outside the ODD, a safe transition process from the ADS engaged mode to manual driving should be initiated by the system through the issue of an appropriate Take Over Request (TOR). In this case, the driver's state plays a fundamental role, as a low attention level might increase driver reaction time to take over control of the vehicle. This paper summarizes and analyzes previously published works in the field of conditional automation and the TOR process. It introduces the topic in the appropriate context describing as well a variety of concerns that are associated with the TOR. It also provides theoretical foundations on implemented designs, and report on concrete examples that are targeted towards designers and the general public. Moreover, it compiles guidelines and standards related to automation in driving and highlights the research gaps that need to be addressed in future research, discussing also approaches and limitations and providing conclusions.
conditional automation; take over request; human-machine interface; automated driving