Functional modeling of high-dimensional data: a Manifold Learning approach Articles uri icon

publication date

  • February 2021

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 22


  • 4, 406


  • 9

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2227-7390


  • This paper introduces stringing via Manifold Learning (ML-stringing), an alternative to the original stringing based on Unidimensional Scaling (UDS). Our proposal is framed within a wider class of methods that map high-dimensional observations to the infinite space of functions,allowing the use of Functional Data Analysis (FDA). Stringing handles general high-dimensional data as scrambled realizations of an unknown stochastic process. Therefore, the essential feature of the method is a rearrangement of the observed values. Motivated by the linear nature of UDS and the increasing number of applications to biosciences (e.g., functional modeling of gene expression arrays and single nucleotide polymorphisms, or the classification of neuroimages) we aim to recover more complex relations between predictors through ML. In simulation studies, it is shown that MLstringing achieves higher-quality orderings and that, in general, this leads to improvements in the functional representation and modeling of the data. The versatility of our method is also illustrated with an application to a colon cancer study that deals with high-dimensional gene expression arrays.This paper shows that ML-stringing is a feasible alternative to the UDS-based version. Also, it opens a window to new contributions to the field of FDA and the study of high-dimensional data.


  • Mathematics
  • Statistics


  • stringing; functional data analysis; manifold learning; multidimensional scaling; highdimensional data; functional regression