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This paper proposes a Transient Stability Constrained Optimal Power Flow (TSCOPF) formulation that models non-synchronous renewable generation equipped with synthetic inertia. The proposed optimization problem calculates the optimal operating point of the system, accommodating high shares of non-synchronous renewable generation while ensuring transient stability in the event of critical incidents. Synthetic inertia controllers are used to improve the dynamic stability of the system in cases of very high share of renewable generation. The proposed tool is tested in the North-West Spanish system, a network with a high penetration of wind energy that causes a reduction in the total system inertia. The results of the study show that 1) synthetic inertia in renewable power plants can diminish electromechanical oscillations after a severe contingency, reducing the cost of ensuring transient stability; 2) using synthetic inertia the system becomes more stable when conventional generation is decommissioned following de-carbonization and renewable promotion policies; and 3) the proposed model can be used to calculate the parameters of the synthetic inertia control.
nonlinear programming; optimal power flow; power system transient stability; renewable generation, inertia emulation