A continuum constitutive model for FDM 3D printed thermoplastics Articles uri icon

publication date

  • November 2020

start page

  • 108373(1)

end page

  • 108373(13)


  • 201

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1359-8368

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1879-1069


  • Fused deposition modelling (FDM) is the most common additive manufacturing technology used for thermoplastic components. This layers-based manufacturing process results into direct links between printing parameters and the polymer mesostructure by means of porosity and structural anisotropy. These dependencies along with other features of thermoplastic polymers (i.e., nonlinearities, viscous and thermal responses) makes its constitutive modelling very challenging. This work distances from studies that model the 3D printing process. Instead, we aim at complementing such approaches with a continuum model to describe the macroscopic behaviour of FDM thermoplastics while preserving links with printing parameters. Prior to the modelling conceptualisation, experimental characterisation tests are conducted on ABS specimens to evaluate the influence of printing parameters on the macroscopic mechanical response. The physical fundamentals behind the deformation and failure mechanisms are identified and motivate the new constitutive model. This model is formulated for finite deformations within a thermodynamically consistent framework. The model accounts for: nonlinear response; anisotropic hyperelasticity related to a transversely isotropic distribution of porous; strain rate dependency; macroscopic stiffness dependent on 3D printing processing. Finally, the model is numerically implemented and calibrated for ABS with original experiments, demonstrating its suitability.


  • additive manufacturing; fused deposition modelling (fdm); 3d printed polymer; mechanical behaviour; constitutive model