This study evaluates various safety aspects of standardized impacts that cyclists may suffer while wearing a bicycle helmet, by combining a partially validated finite element model of the cranio-cervical region and a newly developed commercial bicycle helmet model. Under EN 1078 standardized impact conditions, the results of simulated impact tests show that the helmet can absorb 40% to 50% of the total impact energy at impact velocities above 4 m/s. Further, based on a relationship between the head injury criterion and the risk of injury from field data, the results of the simulations suggest that minor injuries may occur at impact velocities of 10 km/h, serious injuries at 15 km/h, and severe injuries at 20 km/h. Fatal injuries will likely occur at impact velocities of 30 km/h and higher.
bicycle; eps foam; head injury; helmet; impact; safety; velocity