Graphene oxide and graphene reinforced PMMA bone cements: Evaluation of thermal properties and biocompatibility Articles uri icon


publication date

  • October 2019

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 14


  • 19 (3146)


  • 12

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1996-1944


  • The incorporation of well-dispersed graphene oxide (GO) and graphene (G) has been demonstrated as a promising solution to improve the mechanical performance of polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) bone cements in an attempt to enhance the long-term survival of the cemented orthopaedic implants. However, to move forward with the clinical application of graphene-based PMMA bone cements, it is necessary to ensure the incorporation of graphene-based powders do not negatively affect other fundamental properties (e.g., thermal properties and biocompatibility), which may compromise the clinical success of the implant. In this study, the effect of incorporating GO and G on thermal properties, biocompatibility, and antimicrobial activity of PMMA bone cement was investigated. Differential scanning calorimetry studies demonstrated that the extent of the polymerisation reaction, heat generation, thermal conductivity, or glass transition temperature were not significantly (p > 0.05) affected by the addition of the GO or G powders. The cell viability showed no significant difference (p > 0.05) in viability when MC3-T3 cells were exposed to the surface of G- or GO-PMMA bone cements in comparison to the control. In conclusion, this study demonstrated the incorporation of GO or G powder did not significantly influence the thermal properties or biocompatibility of PMMA bone cements, potentially allowing its clinical progression.


  • Materials science and engineering


  • bone cement; graphene oxide; thermal properties; thermal conductivity; kinetics; biocompatibility