Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
Controlled runaway electron (RE) plateau-wall strikes with different initial impurity levels are used to study the effect of background plasma ion charge Z (resistivity) on RE-wall loss dynamics. It is found that Joule heating (magnetic to kinetic energy conversion) during the final loss does not go up monotonically with increasing Z but peaks at intermediate Z similar to 6. Joule heating and overall time scales of the RE final loss are found to be reasonably well-described by a basic 0D coupled-circuit model, with only the loss time as a free parameter. This loss time is found to be fairly well correlated with the avalanche time, possibly suggesting that the RE final loss rate is limited by the avalanche rate. First attempts at measuring total energy deposition to the vessel walls by REs during the final loss are made. At higher plasma impurity levels Z > 5, energy deposition to the wall appears to be consistent with modeling, at least within the large uncertainties of the measurement. At low impurity levels Z < 5, however, local energy deposition appears around 5-20x less than expected, suggesting that the RE energy dissipation at low Z is not fully understood. Published by AIP Publishing.
thermodynamic states and processes; circuit theorems; cameras; x-ray fluorescence; thermography; tokamaks; runaway electrons; plasma impurities; energy conversion; hard x-rays