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Cutting operations in bone are involved in surgical treatments in orthopaedics and traumatology. The importance of guaranteeing the absence of damage in the living workpiece is equivalent in this case to ensuring surface quality. The knowledge in this field is really far from the expertise in industrial cutting of mechanical components. Modeling of bone cutting is a challenge strongly dependent on the accurate modeling of mechanical behaviour of the bone. This paper focuses on modeling of orthogonal cutting of cortical bone. The intrinsic anisotropic nature of the cortical bone that makes it comparable to a composite material is taken into account. The influence of anisotropy is analysed comparing this behaviour with an isotropic approach. It is shown that both chip morphology and temperature are affected by the anisotropy of the cortical bone that acts as a workpiece. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.