Exploring expatriate outcomes Articles uri icon

publication date

  • August 2014

start page

  • 1921

end page

  • 1937


  • 14


  • 25

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0958-5192

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1466-4399


  • This editorial article introduces this special issue of the International Journal of Human Resource Management devoted to the outcomes of expatriate assignments. We set the topic in context. We start by summarizing the traditional view on expatriate outcomes. We then argue that recent developments in the field suggest the need to build a more sophisticated and complex analysis on the topic that incorporates different perspectives (e.g. the organization, the expatriate, their co-workers and their families) and additional types of international experiences and organizations. We then present some difficulties in developing such an analysis. Specifically, using a new typology of complementary relationships among outcomes (i.e. temporal, among-group and among-outcome consistencies), we point out some complications to achieve those relationships. We conclude by introducing the papers in the special edition that all in some way aim to contribute to our understanding of expatriate outcomes.


  • alignment and consistency in hrm outcomes; international assignments; expatriation; expatriate outcomes; host country nationals; perceived organizational support; cross-cultural adjustment; human-resource management; international assignments; intercultural adjustment; foreign subsidiaries; joint ventures; performance; success