Degradation of alumina refractory bricks by sintering Mn low-alloy steels Articles uri icon

publication date

  • March 2014

start page

  • 3063

end page

  • 3070


  • 2


  • 40

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0272-8842

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1873-3956


  • The economic importance of the corrosion and wear of refractory materials is indisputable because these processes determine the viability of any high-temperature liner used in metallurgical processes. The degradation mechanism of lining materials (refractory bricks) in contact with corrosive gases can be studied by examining the penetration rate or the chemical corrosion that results from the circulation of the atmosphere over the refractory material (by diffusional and convective transport). During the sintering of steel containing Mn the high vapour pressure of Mn enables its sublimation during thermal cycling; therefore, Mn is incorporated into the sintering atmosphere. Although the diffusion of Mn in steel samples is beneficial, the presence of Mn in a sintering atmosphere can modify the composition of refractory components. As a result of atmosphere-refractory interactions, a new phase is formed. In this study, the changes in refractory materials as a function of exposure time to atmospheres containing Mn-(g)) at the most common sintering temperature, 1120 degrees C, were investigated. The microstructural changes in the refractory materials and the consequences of the presence of Mn-(g) were analysed using optical microscopy, electron microscopy with X-ray (EDS) microanalysis, X-ray diffraction, and X-ray fluorescence (XRF).


  • microstructure; corrosion; diffusion; spinels; refractories; manganese steels; temperatures; additions; systems; powders; spinel