On the thinnest steady threads obtained by gravitational stretching of capillary jets Articles uri icon

publication date

  • August 2013

start page

  • 471

end page

  • 483




  • 729

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0022-1120

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1469-7645


  • Experiments and global linear stability analysis are used to obtain the critical flow rate below which the highly stretched capillary jet, generated when a Newtonian liquid issues from a vertically oriented tube, is no longer steady. The theoretical description, based on the one-dimensional mass and momentum equations retaining the exact expression for the interfacial curvature, accurately predicts the onset of jet self-excited oscillations experimentally observed for wide ranges of liquid viscosity and nozzle diameter. Our analysis, which extends the work by Sauter & Buggisch (J. Fluid Mech. vol. 533, 2005, pp. 237-257), reveals the essential stabilizing role played by the axial curvature of the jet, the latter effect being especially relevant for injectors with a large diameter. Our findings allow us to conclude that, surprisingly, the size of the steady threads produced at a given distance from the exit can be reduced by increasing the nozzle diameter.


  • absolute/convective instability; capillary flows; interfacial flows (free surface)