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The reality of intraoperative radiation therapy (IORT) practice is consistent with an efficient and highly precise radiation therapy technique to safely boost areas at risk for local recurrence. Long-term clinical experience has shown that IORT-containing multi-modality regimens appear to improve local disease control, if not survival in many diseases. Research with IORT is a multidisciplinary scenario that covers knowledge from radiation beam adapted development to advance molecular biology for bio-predictability of outcome. The technical parameters employed in IORT procedures are important information to be recorded for quality assurance and clinical results analysis. In addition, specific treatment planning systems for IORT procedures are available, to help in the treatment decision-making process. A systematic revision of opportunities for research and innovation in IORT is reported including radiation beam modulation, delivery, dosimetry and planning; infrastructure and treatment factors; experimental and clinical radiobiology; clinical trials, innovation and translational research development.
intraoperative radiation therapy; cancer research; treatment planning; biomolecular markers