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The objective of this paper is to illustrate that electromagnetic macro modeling can properly predict the path-loss exponent in mobile cellular wireless communication. This represents the variation of the path loss with distance from the base-station antenna. Specifically, we illustrate that the path-loss exponent in cellular wireless communication is three, preceded by a slow-fading region, and followed by the fringe region, where the path-loss exponent is four. The sizes of these regions are determined by the heights of the base-station transmitting antennas and the receiving antennas...
norton surface wave; propagation; sommerfeld formulation; cellular wireless communication; ground wave; imperfect ground; land mobile radio cellular systems; land mobile radio propagation factors; macro modeling; path loss exponent; surface wave