The Joker effect: cooperation driven by destructive agents Articles uri icon

publication date

  • June 2011

start page

  • 113

end page

  • 119

issue

  • 1

volume

  • 279

international standard serial number (ISSN)

  • 0022-5193

electronic international standard serial number (EISSN)

  • 1095-8541

abstract

  • Understanding the emergence of cooperation is a central issue in evolutionary game theory. The hardest setup for the attainment of cooperation in a population of individuals is the Public Goods game in which cooperative agents generate a common good at their own expenses, while defectors "free-ride" this good. Eventually this causes the exhaustion of the good, a situation which is bad for everybody. Previous results have shown that introducing reputation, allowing for volunteer participation, punishing defectors, rewarding cooperators or structuring agents, can enhance cooperation. Here we present a model which shows how the introduction of rare, malicious agents &- that we term jokers &- performing just destructive actions on the other agents induce bursts of cooperation. The appearance of jokers promotes a rock-paper-scissors dynamics, where jokers outbeat defectors and cooperators outperform jokers, which are subsequently invaded by defectors. Thus, paradoxically, the existence of destructive agents acting indiscriminately promotes cooperation.

keywords

  • public goods; cooperation; destructive agents; cycles