Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)
The use of ECRH has been investigated as a promising technique to avoid or postpone disruptions in dedicated experiments in FTU and ASDEX Upgrade. Disruptions have been produced by injecting Mo through laser blow-off(FTU) or by puffing deuterium gas above the Greenwald limit (FTU and ASDEX Upgrade). The toroidal magnetic field is kept fixed and the ECRH launching mirrors have been steered before every discharge in order to change the deposition radius. The loop voltage signal is used as disruption precursor to trigger the ECRH power before the plasma current quench. In the FTU experiments (Ip = 0.35&-0.5 MA, Bt = 5.3T, PECRH = 0.4&-1.2MW) it is found that the application of ECRH modifies the current quench starting time depending on the power deposition location. A scan in deposition location has shown that the direct heating of one of the magnetic islands produced by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) resistive instabilities (either m/n = 3/2, 2/1 or 3/1) prevents its further growth and also produces the stabilization of the other coupled modes and the delay of the current quench or its full avoidance.Disruption avoidance and complete discharge recovery are obtained when the ECRH power is applied on rational surfaces. The modes involved in the disruption are found to be tearing modes stabilized by a strong local ECRH heating. The Rutherford equation has been used to reproduce the evolution of the MHD modes. In the ASDEX Upgrade experiments L-mode plasmas (Ip = 0.6 MA, Bt = 2.5T, PECRH = 0.6MW ∼ POHM) the injection of ECRH close to q = 2 significantly delays the 2/1 onset and prolongs the duration of the discharge: during this phasethe density continues to increase.