Life cycle assessment of lab-scale solid sodium-ion batteries: A sustainable alternative to liquid lithium-ion batteries Articles uri icon

publication date

  • March 2024


  • 80

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2352-152X


  • This study presents a comprehensive life cycle assessment (LCA) of liquid lithium-ion batteries (liquid LIB), liquid sodium-ion batteries (liquid SIB), and solid sodium-ion batteries (solid SIB) to evaluate their environmental impacts in a laboratory scale. The results emphasize the potential environmental benefits of adopting solid SIBs as they show considerable savings in toxicity categories compared to conventional lithium-ion batteries. Moreover, solid SIBs demonstrated the lowest abiotic depletion potential and photochemical oxidation. However, they exhibited higher impacts in ozone depletion and eutrophication compared to liquid LIBs and liquid SIBs. Liquid LIBs showed the lowest global warming potential, making them more climate-friendly than the other battery types. Moreover, the results showed that, energetically, liquid LIBs are the most competitive option. To determine the conditions in which the solid SIBs improve the environmental behaviour of the liquid LIBs, an energetic and sensitivity analysis were conducted. Solid SIBs using renewable energy like concentrated solar power (CSP) and dematerializing part of its electrolyte exhibited reduced Cumulative Energy Demand and improved the environmental performance in all categories compared to conventional liquid LIBs. Furthermore, the study assessed the specific heat capacity (Cp) of the solid sodium electrolyte (NASICON), revealing its potential suitability for advanced battery technologies that require efficient heat storage and thermal management. Globally, this study highlights some environmental benefits of adopting solid SIBs, especially those manufactured with renewable energy, as a promising alternative to traditional lithium-ion batteries.


  • Chemistry


  • life cycle assessment (lca); post‑lithium batteries; solid sodium-ion battery; cumulative energy demand (ced); nasicon