Active Labeling Correction of Mealtimes and the Appearance of Types of Carbohydrates in Type 1 Diabetes Information Records Articles uri icon

publication date

  • October 2023

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 11


  • 19, 4050


  • 11

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2227-7390


  • People with type 1 diabetes are required to adhere to their treatment rigorously to ensure maximum benefits. Diabetes tracking tools have played an important role in this regard. Type 1 diabetes monitoring has evolved and matured with the advent of blood glucose monitor sensors, insulin pens, and insulin pump automation. However, carbohydrate monitoring has seen little progress despite carbohydrates representing a major potential disruption. Relying on the modeling of carbohydrate intake using the rate of exogenous glucose appearance, we first present a methodology capable of identifying the type of carbohydrates ingested by classifying them into fast and non-fast carbohydrates. Second, we test the ability of the methodology to identify the correct synchrony between the actual mealtime and the time labeled as such in diabetes records. A deep neural network is trained with processed input data that consist of different values to estimate the parameters in a series of experiments in which, firstly, we vary the response of ingested carbohydrates for subsequent identification and, secondly, we shift the learned carbohydrate absorption curves in time to estimate when the meals were administered to virtual patients. This study validates that the identification of different carbohydrate classes in the meal records of people with type 1 diabetes could become a valuable source of information, as it demonstrates the potential to identify inaccuracies in the recorded meal records of these patients, suggesting the potential abilities of the next generation of type 1 diabetes management tools.


  • Biology and Biomedicine
  • Computer Science
  • Telecommunications


  • carbohydrates; classification; machine learning; meal identification; type 1 diabetes