Studying and improving the performance of ETSI ITS contention-based forwarding (CBF) in urban and highway scenarios: S-FoT+ Articles uri icon

publication date

  • September 2023


  • 233

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1389-1286

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1872-7069


  • This paper evaluates the performance of ETSI ITS Contention-Based Forwarding (CBF) and ETSI Simple GeoBroadcast forwarding while disseminating warning messages over a Geographical Area in highway and urban scenarios. Our experimental evaluation considers the complete ETSI ITS architecture including the Decentralized Congestion Control (DCC) mechanism. We propose an enhanced CBF mechanism, named S-FOT+, which combines several improvements to the ETSI CBF algorithm. S-FoT+ has a similar or better performance than the ETSI forwarding algorithms regarding both reliability and end-to-end delay while requiring much fewer transmissions. The improvements are equally effective and efficient in both urban and highway scenarios with large Destination Areas. Finally, we evaluate the trade-offs that stem from using multi-hop broadcast mechanisms in urban settings with smaller Destination Areas when compared to single-hop broadcast. Results show that multi-hop mechanisms significantly improve coverage at the cost of an increased number of transmissions.


  • contention-based forwarding (cbf); cooperative awareness message (cam); decentralized congestion control (dcc); decentralized environmental notification message (denm); duplicate packet detection (dpd); etsi intelligent transport systems (its); simple geobroadcast forwarding