Freestanding graphene heat engine analyzed using stochastic thermodynamics Articles uri icon

publication date

  • July 2023

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 7


  • 7, 075217


  • 13

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2158-3226


  • We present an Ito-Langevin model for freestanding graphene connected to an electrical circuit. The graphene is treated as a Brownian particle in a double-well potential and is adjacent to a fixed electrode to form a variable capacitor. The capacitor is connected in series with a battery and a load resistor. The capacitor and resistor are given separate thermal reservoirs. We have solved the coupled Ito-Langevin equations for a broad range of temperature differences between the two reservoirs. Using ensemble averages, we report the rate of change in energy, heat, and work using stochastic thermodynamics. When the resistor is held at higher temperatures, the efficiency of the heat engine rises linearly with temperature. However, when the graphene is held at higher temperatures, the efficiency instantly rises and then plateaus. Also, twice as much entropy is produced when the resistor is hotter compared to when the graphene is hotter. Unexpectedly, the temperature of the capacitor is found to alter the dissipated power of the resistor.


  • Mathematics


  • energy harvesting; heat engines; thermodynamics; electrical circuits; graphene; charge dynamics; double-well potential; stochastic processes