Ways of Seeing the Historic Process: An Analysis of the Spots from the Spanish Election Campaign of April 2019 Articles uri icon

publication date

  • November 2021

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 21


  • 0


  • 0

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0196-8599


  • Electoral spots are an especially significant element of political parties" campaign strategies, and they are keys for building their identities. This article analyzes the spots from the election campaign for Spain's general elections of April 28, 2019, and it observes how the differentiation strategies of the parties can be understood through their different attitudes to the historic process. Using references to memory studies, it proposes a semiotic square that summarizes the different positions of each party with respect to this variable. In so doing, the article intends to shed light on the profound logic of positioning used in these elections. Moreover, as the different attitudes to the historic process seem to be related to contrasting ways to consider the national identity, we believe that the proposed model could be extended to other similar cases.


  • Information Science
  • Politics


  • media studies; semiotics; political discourse; collective memory; identity; electoral spots