High-temperature wettability in hard materials: Comparison of systems with different binder/carbide phases and evaluation of C addition Articles uri icon

publication date

  • February 2023

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 17


  • 106081


  • 111

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0263-4368

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2213-3917


  • Metal-ceramic wettability is a decisive parameter in the high-temperature sintering of hard materials. Wettability tests enable the study of this property with minimum material waste, especially useful in the search of alternative systems to WC-Co hardmetals. In this investigation, Fe-based binders – FeNiCr and FeCrAl – were tested on Ti(C,N) and WC substrates, aiming to assess: the high-temperature interactions, the dissolutive character of the liquid phase and the nature of the interphases generated, and the influence on sintering behaviour. As a result, FeNiCr led to excellent wetting scenarios for both ceramics, whereas FeCrAl alloys induced the formation of aluminium oxides. The effect of C addition on wettability was also evaluated, resulting in an improvement of this property by the inclusion of this element in the binder phase. Inspection of the microstructures resultant from powder metallurgy processing of the different configurations confirmed their excellent correlation with wettability results. As a consequence, the effectivity of this technique as a model of the sintering scenario could be asserted.


  • Chemistry
  • Materials science and engineering


  • alternative hard materials; metal-ceramic wettability; contact-angle tests; liquid phase sintering; high-temperature sintering; powder metallurgy