Urban Rebels? A Gendered Approach to Domicile and Protest Participation in Nine European Countries Articles uri icon

publication date

  • December 2022

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 23

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0038-0385


  • Engaging with research on protest participation and gender inequalities, we examine how gender dynamics play a crucial role in shaping patterns of protest participation across the rural/urban divide. We argue that moving from a rural toward an urban setting leads to an increase in protest participation for women, but not for men. Using an original two-wave panel survey dataset collected for the same individuals between 2018 and 2019 and covering nine European countries, we are able to go beyond traditional correlation analyses and measure our key variables over time, thus developing a dynamic approach that links differences in gender, socio-geographical positioning and protest participation. Our findings demonstrate that the rural/urban divide as a driver of protest participation affects women and men differently, because it might be shaped by different experiences of political socialization, socio-economic status and structures of domination and discrimination, leading to different opportunities and incentives for mobilization.


  • european politics; gender; panel data; protest; rural/urban cleavage