- PHYSICAL REVIEW B Journal
- December 2020
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Phase transitions have recently been formulated in the time domain of quantum many-body systems, a phenomenon dubbed dynamical quantum phase transitions (DPTs), whose phenomenology is often divided in two types. One refers to distinct phases according to long-time averaged order parameters, while the other is focused on the nonanalytical behavior emerging in the rate function of the Loschmidt echo. Here we show that such DPTs can be found in systems with few degrees of freedom; i.e., they can take place without resorting to the traditional thermodynamic limit. We illustrate this by showing the existence of the two types of DPTs in a quantum Rabi model—a system involving a spin-
and a bosonic mode. The dynamical criticality appears in the limit of an infinitely large ratio of the spin frequency with respect to the bosonic one. We determine its dynamical phase diagram and study the long-time averaged order parameters, whose semiclassical approximation yields a jump at the transition point. We find the critical times at which the rate function becomes nonanalytical, showing its associated critical exponent as well as the corrections introduced by a finite frequency ratio. Our results open the door for the study of DPTs without the need to scale up the number of components, thus allowing for their investigation in well controllable systems.
- dynamical phase transitions; nonequilibrium statistical mechanics; order parameters; phase diagrams; quantum criticality; quantum phase transitions; quantum quench; quantum statistical mechanics