Mainstream protest reporting in the Contemporary Media Environment: Exploring (In) stability and adherence to Protest Paradigm from 1998 to 2017 Articles uri icon

publication date

  • September 2021

start page

  • 692

end page

  • 724


  • 3


  • 98

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1077-6990

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2161-430X


  • This study uses content analysis of protest coverage and sourcing practices by five
    major U.S. daily newspapers over the past two decades (1998-2017) to examine
    the prevalence and evolution of a set of devices of representation present in news
    coverage of protest groups. They have been traditionally ascribed to a pattern of
    mainstream coverage deemed marginalizing of protest groups, the protest paradigm.
    The study concludes that the prevalence of marginalizing devices is stable over time,
    and that the degree of adherence to the paradigm in news stories systematically
    varies across protest type and geography. Implications of these findings are discussed.


  • protest coverage; protest paradigm; mainstream coverage; deviance; marginalizing portrayals