Darkening Low-Earth Orbit Satellite Constellations: A Review Articles uri icon

publication date

  • March 2022

start page

  • 24383

end page

  • 24394


  • 10

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2169-3536

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2169-3536


  • The proliferation of low-earth orbit (LEO) satellites and the LEO satellite internet will be a game-changer for the low-latency high-speed global internet. While this new generation of the satellite internet in conjunction with fifth generation network (5G) and sixth generation network (6G) enabled emerging technologies, such as precision farming and smart cities, it will bring new challenges, such as satellite collision, limited satellite lifespan, security concerns, and satellite brightness. This article discusses the satellite brightness caused by LEO constellations that potentially affect the ongoing astronomical studies. It reviews the underlying contributors to the satellite brightness as well as the state-of-the-art technologies proposed to mitigate this emerging challenge.


  • Electronics


  • low earth orbit satellites; satellite brightness; satellite internet; phased array antenna; brightness magnitude; satellite communication; satcom