Black-Start Capability of DFIG Wind Turbines Through a Grid-Forming Control Based on the Rotor Flux Orientation Articles uri icon

publication date

  • October 2021

start page

  • 142910

end page

  • 142924


  • 9 (2021)

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 2169-3536

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 2169-3536


  • The increasing penetration of renewable energies in the power system is demanding new services from wind farms. In particular, system operators are concerned about system restoration after a black-out and new grid codes are under consideration that demand the participation of wind farms in the restoration process. Black start requires the wind farms to be capable of controlling voltage and frequency in an isolated grid. This paper proposes the use of a novel grid forming control for doubly fed induction generators (DFIG) for restoring the system after a black-out. The proposed grid forming control uses the rotor flux orientation principle, that allows to generate an internal electromotive force for controlling in this way the terminal voltage and frequency. Then, it is demonstrated that the rotor flux magnitude and frequency can be controlled by means of the rotor voltage applied the rotor side converter of the DFIG. The paper also proposes a wind turbine control system for balancing the power demanded by the load at the wind turbine mechanical system. Black start capability of the proposed control system has been validated through a comprehensive simulation. The simulated system consists of a wind farm with two DFIG-based wind turbines connected in parallel to a point of common coupling that supplies an induction motor through a feeder. Also, the synchronization of the isolated system to a main grid has been simulated, demonstrating the ability of the proposed control system for successfully completing the restoration process.


  • grid-forming power converter; wind energy; doubly fed induction generator; frequency response