Surface Electromyography Study Using a Low-Cost System: Are There Neck Muscles Differences When the Passenger Is Warned during an Emergency Braking Inside an Autonomous Vehicle? Articles uri icon

publication date

  • August 2021

start page

  • 1

end page

  • 18


  • 16


  • 21

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 1424-3210

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1424-8220


  • Deaths and serious injuries caused by traffic accidents is a concerning public health
    problem. However, the problem can be mitigated by the Autonomous Emergency Braking (AEB)
    system, which can avoid the impact. The market penetration of AEB is exponentially growing, and
    non-impact situations are expected to become more frequent. Thus, new injury patterns must be
    analysed, and the neck is particularly sensitive to sudden acceleration changes. Abrupt braking
    would be enough to be a potential risk for cervical spine injury. There is controversy about whether
    or not there are differences in cervical behaviour depending on whether passengers are relaxed
    or contract their muscles before the imminent accident. In the present manuscript, 18 volunteers
    were subjected to two different levels of awareness during an emergency braking test. Cervical
    muscles (sternocleidomastoid and trapezius) were analysed by the sEMG signal captured by means
    of a low-cost system. The differences observed in the muscle response according to gender and
    age were notable when passengers are warned. Gender differences were more significant in the
    post-braking phase. When passengers were relaxed, subjects older than 35 registered higher sEMG
    values. Meanwhile, when passengers contract their muscles, subjects who were younger than or
    equal to 35 years old experienced an increment in the values of the sEMG signals.


  • Electronics


  • surface electromyography; low-cost; autonomous bus; cervical muscles response; injury; emergency braking