The Haldane phase is the prototype of symmetry protected topological (SPT) phases of spin chain systems. It can be protected by several symmetries having in common the degeneracy of the entanglement spectrum (ES). Here we explore in depth this degeneracy for the spin-1 Affleck-Kennedy-Lieb-Tasaki and bilinear-biquadratic Hamiltonians and show the emergence of a bulk-edge correspondence that relates the low energy properties of the entanglement Hamiltonian of a periodic chain and that of the physical Hamiltonian of an open chain. We find that the ES can be described in terms of two spins-1/2 behaving as the effective spins at the end of the open chain. In the case of non-contiguous partitions, we find that the entanglement Hamiltonian is given by the spin-1/2 Heisenberg Hamiltonian, which suggests a relationship between SPT phases and conformal field theory. We finally investigate the string order parameter and the relation with the bulk-edge correspondence.
entanglement in topological phase, quantum information, topological; phases of matter, density matrix renormalisation group