Decentralized Frequency Control for Black Start of Full-Converter Wind Turbines Articles uri icon

publication date

  • March 2021

start page

  • 480

end page

  • 487


  • 1


  • 36

International Standard Serial Number (ISSN)

  • 0885-8969

Electronic International Standard Serial Number (EISSN)

  • 1558-0059


  • Due to the increasing penetration of distributed renewable energy generation systems, their participation in power system restoration is gaining a growing interest. For the black start of a system without synchronous generation, Wind Energy Conversion Systems (WECSs) must be able to control voltage and frequency. However, WECSs have been traditionally controlled as current sources. This paper proposes a decentralized control system for the black start of WECSs operating in parallel. In comparison with known methods for operation of distributed energy resources without synchronous generation, this paper specifically addresses the requirements of WECSs. Total wind power is regulated to match the demand during the black start process. This power is shared between WECSs according to the wind power available in each of wind turbine using a droop control characteristic between the voltage and active power. Using the so-called reactive power synchronization method, the WECSs can operate in synchronism even if wind power is significantly different in each wind turbine. Simulation results for a case study where two WECSs are connected in parallel are presented to validate the proposal.


  • Electronics


  • black-start; distributed energy resources; frequency control; full-converter; islanded operation; voltage control; wind energy; voltage control; frequency control; wind turbines; reactive power; synchronization; generators; mathematical model